简要描述：Suppose you are an animal. Well, actually, you are an animal, but suppose you’re another kind of animal, maybe something small that might make a tasty snack for a larger predator. You’re walking along one day when you see a big dog. What d...
Suppose you are an animal. Well, actually, you are an animal, but suppose you’re another kind of animal, maybe something small that might make a tasty snack for a larger predator. You’re walking along one day when you see a big dog. What do you do?假设你是一只动物。额，你只不过本来就是一只动物。
但假设你是另外一种动物，或许是一种可以被食肉动物当作鲜美甜品的小动物。如果有一天你在独自一人散步时看见一条大狗，你不会怎么办？Well, depending on what kind of animal you are, you have different options. A skunk can spray a noxious liquid that will repel predators, a cat can make its hair stand on end so that it seems larger than it is, or some animals, such as opossums, may pretend to be dead already.好吧，这各不相同你是哪种动物，你有有所不同的自由选择。一只臭鼬可以获释毒液击溃捕食者，一只猫可以让它的毛发倒竖一起，让它看上去比整天更大，还有一些动物，比如负鼠，或许早就躲起来躺在地上了。
There’s another strategy all these animals have, though. You’ve seen it before, but maybe never thought about it. They can freeze.只不过这些动物还有另外一条策略，虽然你有可能以前见过，但或许你根本没想到过。它们可以失效。
When a squirrel or a rabbit or a chipmunk freezes, it can remain almost entirely motionless for minutes at a time. Try it yourself. Whatever position you’re in right now, move nothing at all for the next minute. It’s not so easy!当一只松鼠，兔子或花栗鼠失效时，它可以一次维持几乎静止不动约数分钟之幸。你自己试试。不管你现在是什么姿势，在下一分钟内维持动也一动。这可没有那么非常简单！The reason an ability to freeze works as a defense is that a predator’s attack behavior may actually be triggered by motion. A frog, for example, will literally starve to death in a box full of dead flies. Pass one of those flies in front of its eyes on a little string, though, and it will automatically gulp it down.失效能作为一种防卫的手段，其原因在于一个食肉动物的攻击行为有可能只是由运动而引发。
The response to freeze is completely hard-wired, so freezing shows us something about both predator and prey. Evolution has caused the freeze strategy to come into existence precisely because it fits in with the way the visual systems of predators operate.对失效的反应是动物与生俱来的，所以失效给我们展现出的是捕食者和被捕食者双方的特性。演化已使得失效策略应运而生，因为它适应环境了捕食者视觉系统的运转方式。
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